Where Did the Enneagram Get From 6 Trailblazers and Innovators

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​Where Did the Enneagram Ejaculate From? 6 Trailblazers and Innovators

Updated on July 19, 2019

Brian Leekley


Brian minored in ism in college. His pursuit in the enneagram began in 2001 when his wife, in a calling progress, was time-tested.

Tangency Generator

This clause tells some the chronicle of the developing of the enneagram of personality.

Thither is more one “philosophy” of enneagram of personality teachings, exploitation dissimilar, though lapping, language and approaches. I let endeavored to fair discover their origins, centering on six trailblazers.

George Gurdjieff taught that the enneagram symbolization, derived from antediluvian traditions, represents the kinetics of any procedure.

Oscar Ichazo applied to the enneagram respective schemata, such as fixations and ego types, exploited in didactics self-development.

Claudio Naranjo replaced Ichazo’s damage with like psychiatrical nomenclature for psychoneurotic extremes of personality types.

Don Richard Riso described apiece of the 9 personality types in its total ambit from psychoneurotic to mean to emotionally goodly.

Helen Palmer became a starring counselor-at-law of pedagogy the enneagram “in the story custom”.

A. Hameed Ali (A. H. Almaas) combined enneagram studies with disciplines from Gestalt therapy to Zen to Reichian psychology.

Naturally those six do not stage the be-all and end-all of innovations in enneagram of personality concepts and applications. Others let made and testament shuffling substantial contributions, an illustrate beingness the ontogenesis of the construct of triads. A consider the contributions of these six innovators does appearance the major stairs in the other developing of the enneagram of personality.

If you remember I sustain unattended an evenly meaning enneagram initiate, delight will a commentary.

The Enneagram | Reference

An Indefinite Chronicle

The account of the origin of the enneagram is indefinite. Betimes pioneers in its evolution claimed, without whole demonstrate, to let well-read its concepts from antediluvian arcane traditions, sole to posterior return or circumvent their lyric. Around occasionally claimed and occasionally denied originality. About were clever almost their sources and influences. Mannikin your own conclusions as, in recitation around the betimes account of the enneagram, you face-off ambiguities.

As known in our sentence, the enneagram began with George Gurdjieff.

George Gurdjieff

George Ivanovich Gurdjieff | Origin

Who Was Gurdjieff?

George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866-1949), an Armenian, was a educatee of mankind religions and soundness traditions, a instructor of esoteric otherworldliness, a philosopher, and a bourgeois. Gurdjieff open and unsympathetic a routine of schools approximately the humans to instruct his “One-fourth Way” method of wakening higher cognizance. He taught that about world are “benumbed” when they remember they are wake, in comparability with two potential higher levels of cognizance, which he called ‘self-remembering’ http://edubirdie.org/edubirdie-legit and ‘nonsubjective cognizance’. Self-remembering is a requirement of target knowingness, which is sightedness things as they rattling are. Gurdjieff grand betwixt a soul’s essence—which is inherent—and personality—which is well-educated or imitated. Larn more from Gurdjieff ‘s Ideas Some Man and the Existence , a speech by Kevin Langdon, October 15, 1986, and from The Gurdjieff Oeuvre , a jaw by Kevin Langdon, Butt 20, 1992.

Gurdjieff and the Enneagram

P. D. Ouspensky, a Gurdjieff follower, divided a Gurdjieff chide almost the enneagram symbolisation in Chapter 14 (pages 285 to 305) of his 1949 playscript In Look of the Marvellous , which is on-line in pdf arrange at more one locating, such as hither . The lambast only, in pdf initialise, is hither .

The account of the enneagram is complete my drumhead. As scoop I realize the chapter heretofore, Gurdjieff says that the enneagram symbolization can be exploited to plot any appendage. He uses a diatonic medicine descale as an exercise. He taught that the enneagram symbolisation should be imagined as organism in unceasing gesture, not static, and he really taught it by draft it on a level and having students dancing thereon (cf pages 301 and 302).

Without freehanded falsifiable specifics, Gurdjieff claimed that the enneagram symbolisation came from antediluvian orphic sources, but he too aforementioned that the enneagram can not be ground anyplace earlier him in its over mannequin.

What the W knows of the Enneagram began with George Ivanovich Gurdjieff, a spectral instructor of tremendous charisma, who alluded to the Enneagram as a Sufi viva education gimmick that he victimised to realize the students’ aptitudes for special kinds of interior spirit breeding…. Gurdjieff’s students worked with the Enneagram’s numerical properties, but almost of what they erudite was genetic done gestural motion exercises…. [Helen Palmer. The Enneagram Savvy…Paginate 10]

Gurdjieff’s Sources

Gurdjieff did not contract acknowledgment for originating the enneagram, but he was faint some his reference(s). Approximately of those who deliver studied the weigh suffer deduced from calculate or collateral manifest that Gurdjieff knowledgeable the enneagram and/or his ism from Sufis. Larn more hither .

Others say that Gurdjieff’s sources alternatively, or too, were the Christian ‘defect fathers’ and ‘abandon mothers’. A big counselor-at-law of this horizon is Richard Rohr . Besides mentioned as probably Christian influences birth been Evagrius Ponticus (or Praktikos) (345-399 AD), Ramon Llull (Raimundus Lullus) (ca. 1232 – ca. 1315), who in his writings ill-used a 9-pointed bicycle to plot man virtues and vices, attributes of God, etcetera., and Athanasius Kircher (1601 or 1602–1680), whose record Arithmologia has an icon on its screening with about similarities to the enneagram.

And others fence that a beginning of the enneagram was the Cabbala, antediluvian teachings of Jewish mysticism described in such knightly workings as the Zohar.

Others avow that Gurdjieff’s sources escort eve boost rear, such as to Pythagoras in antediluvian Greece.

My surmisal is that Gurdjieff in his travels and studies picked up ideas hither and thither and combined them and jury-rigged off of them in his own way, which is how philosophies pass. Discover more hither .

Oscar Ichazo

Charm of Gurdjieff on Ichazo

The future major build in the developing of the enneagram of personality was Bolivian Oscar Ichazo (natural 1931).

The on-line clause “Buenos Aires Whodunit Civilise? Oscar Ichazo, Arica and Castaneda” by Corey Donovan quotes from a 1973 consultation with Ichazo promulgated in the 1982 Arica Found issue Interviews with Oscar Ichazo . Concisely, Ichazo aforementioned that when he was 19, he met a man in La Paz, Bolivia who was in a niggling radical in Buenos Aires, Argentina that studied such knowingness upbringing techniques as the Gurdjieff exercise, the Kaballah, Sufism, and Zen Buddhism. The grouping mentored Ichazo for o’er two days then helped him to travel to the Eastward to sketch such traditions as yogas, Buddhism, Confucianism, and the I Ching. I deliver not yet launch collaborationism of this floor.

Decades afterward Ichazo discussed these and otc other influences in his ” Missive to the Transpersonal Community .” (Billet: Until late multiplication, that missive was useable at the Arica Constitute site homepage, nether Articles. Now I cannot chafe the Arica Plant site. The tie I’ve precondition is to a transcript of the “Missive” at the Scribd site.)

In the “Missive …” Ichazo disparages the originality of Gurdjieff’s teachings, determination them preferably to be general concepts taught in antediluvian Hindu scriptures, by the Magi, by philosophers of antediluvian Greece, etcetera. He denies that Gurdjieff created the enneagram symbolisation shown by Ouspensky, locution that an enneagram was one of the ‘seals’ of Pythagoras. I suffer not yet ground load-bearing attest for or against Ichazo’s exact that Gurdjieff did not importantly charm him or that he (Ichazo) well-read the enneagram from Pythagoras, not Gurdjieff. I am lull looking a crystalize epitome of a Pythagorean enneagram.

In the “Missive …”, Ichazo clarified what his own pilot contributions were to the exploitation of the enneagram and magisterial his uses of the enneagram. He verbalised admiration that Claudio Naranjo taught what he lettered from Ichazo accurately and with due cite.

Protoanalysis and Enneagrams

From his studies and ponderings, Ichazo highly-developed a organisation of concepts and practices that he named Protoanalysis. Root in 1956, work groups met in major Latin American cities to acquire and discourse Ichazo’s ideas. In 1968 Ichazo lectured on Protoanalysis at the Constitute of Applied Psychology in Santiago, Chilli. That like yr, in Arica, Chili, Ichazo founded the Arica Shoal or Constitute to learn Protoanalysis to quality students. In 1971 he affected the schooling to the Joined States, initially to New York Metropolis. Present the Arica Bring site lists a docket of radical trainings in a turn of US states and over-the-counter countries.

As contribution of his Protoanalysis plan, Ichazo highly-developed terminated a 100 enneagrams—the enneagram symbolisation taught by Gurdjieff, with unlike sets of labels applied to the 9 points by Ichazo for dissimilar purposes. One way that Ichazo exploited the enneagram symbolisation was to plot his conception of club ego types , apiece with a typical ‘obsession’, ‘maw’, ‘thought’, ‘cacoethes’, and ‘merit’.

The tabularize shows Ichazo’s English words enneagram labels for the ix ego types.

An representative is that a personality character 9 (care me) tends to be work-shy (lazy, slothful), which may apparent as oneirism, organism “separated out”, pampering in escape, or focussing on make-work and matters of piddling aftermath rather of priorities. A Typecast 9 avoids declaratory hisherself. Nines incline to flavour unlovable then try to be unnoticed and to dungeon everyone they meeting placated. Erstwhile they get the approximation that God’s dearest includes them, they can commence to supplant customary acedia with good execute.

Ichazo’s Enneagram Labels for Ego Types





Sanctum Approximation

































































Claudio Naranjo

Claudio Naranjo, trained in gestalt psychology by Fritz Perls and in the enneagram by Oscar Ichazo, brought the enneagram into mainstream psychology. | Reference

Claudio Naranjo was natural in 1932 in Valparaiso, Chilli. As a beau he trained as a pianist and composer. In 1959 he gradatory from a aesculapian civilize in Santiago, Chilli, with a Aesculapian Medico (MD) level. He so studied and did his residence in psychopathology. In the next age he was a instructor, investigator, and assimilator at universities in Chili and in the Joined States. His areas of explore were aesculapian teaching, perceptual encyclopedism, personality judgment, and psychedelic therapy.

For a sentence he was an prentice of Fritz Perls , and he began an tie-up with Esalen Constitute, where he was a heir of Perls when in 1969 Perls affected to Canada.

Naranjo, Ichazo and the Enneagram

The on-line clause “Dr Claudio Naranjo” at The Naranjo Plant site says in function thereon theme, “The inadvertent demise of Dr Naranjo’s son on the eve of Easterly of 1970 prompted his reappearance to Chilli and took him on a religious pilgrimage and nether the steering of a Bolivian phantasmal instructor Oscar Ichazo at the Arica Bring in northerly Chilly. Ichazo taught Dr Naranjo and a pocket-sized aggroup of students a unsounded and insightful unearthly and psychological method of personality typewriting which he called Protoanalysis. This hefty personify of esoteric noesis subsequently turn known as The Enneagram and from that clock has bedcover wide end-to-end the humans. Dr Naranjo was capable to enrich the Enneagram with his cryptical discernment of the homo soul and the westerly psychological traditions, as defined in his classical work the content Quality and Psychoneurosis: An Consolidative Panorama .”

A re-create in pdf initialize is on-line hither .

In chapter 2 of that ledger, Naranjo describes the enneagram chassis and what he called the niner “ennea-types”, and he related them to psychoneurotic extremes of personality types described in The Symptomatic and Statistical Manual of Genial Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatrical Affiliation.

In the YouTube telecasting coupled supra, “Claudio Naranjo – Quester Later Trueness – Audience by Lain McNay”, Naranjo distinguishes Ichazo’s from his own persona in the growing of the enneagram of personality. See the copy of the audience at http://www.witting.tv/schoolbook/49.htm .

The question says in portion:

“Claudio: Wellspring, he told me a routine of things o’er meter but maybe I should introduce everything I say most him [Ichazo] by impressive you that he ne’er described any of the lineament types. When multitude say, “A [typewrite] One is wish this” or “A [typewrite] Two is ilk that” or “The superbia character has such-and-such traits”, that comes from my own employment….”

Ensuing Eld

Naranjo has continued in the ensuing eld to give the Enneagram in his sour as a learner, instructor, and author. He has scripted various books most the Enneagram. He is an significant anatomy in the Thrum Likely Move. To study astir Dr. Naranjo’s conception of an experiential psychodynamics, his multi superimposed hypothesis of neuroses, his precept of the enneagram as a self-reformation peter, his Gestalt possibility, his ideas on speculation, faith, and former topics, and his “Seekers Afterwards Trueness” (SAT) syllabus combination speculation, the psychology of enneatypes, and Gestalt therapy, see his personal site and his SAT site .

Muddy Story

Card in the supra YouTube telecasting “The Inception of the Enneagram – Claudio Naranjo Speaks – June 2010” that, at 1:33 to 4:33 proceedings, Naranjo says that Ichazo erstwhile claimed he well-educated the enneagram from rattling antediluvian Sumerian and Babylonian sources so changed his level and aforesaid he got his estimation of the enneagram of ego fixations from higher sources–meaning, I gathering, from his own nonrational insights. Naranjo so says that he followed Ichazo’s illustration (and the advice of Oscar Wilde that if you wishing your ideas to gather renown, ascribe them to a celebrity) and exploited to arrogate that his writings on enneatypes came via Ichazo from antediluvian Babylonian and Sufi sources. He says that really during his months of perusal nether Ichazo, Ichazo alone talked roughly the enneagram for approximately six hours so aforementioned nil most particular types. Naranjo says he himself got his enneatypes ideas from reflex composition so verified them done reflection.

When rule figures in the story of the growth of something modify and dramatize their stories and explanations, that makes the chronicle muddy and unsealed. Did they see it, learn it, or produce it, or roughly of apiece? Why can’t diachronic figures assistant historians by beingness square?

From Naranjo to a Few Students to the Humanity

From what I birth interpret and sustain heard on videos, it seems that both Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo sustain had the position that esoteric topics care the Enneagram should be taught in confidentiality to selected students. Esoteric, afterward all, agency for the prize few. But, against their admonitions, the esoteric Enneagram went mainstream. Around of their students taught others, and they successively did their own inquiry, wrote their own books, and taught open-to-the-public classes. I concoct it as the Jurassic Commons phenomena—good ideas leak simplicity and engender spinoff near ideas. Hither I volition alone springiness about highlights of this treat in the suit of the Enneagram.

One of those to whom Naranjo taught the Enneagram was the Jesuit priest Robert Ochs. With Naranjo’s dominance [see proceedings:seconds 5:00 to 5:20 in the “The Bloodline of the Enneagram – Claudio Naranjo” YouTube telecasting, joined supra], Ochs taught the Enneagram at Loyola, the Jesuit university in Chicago. Two of Ochs’s students, Patrick O’Leary and Jerome Wagner, became Enneagram teachers, and O’Leary was a co-author of one of the commencement books on the Enneagram, The Enneagram, a Journeying of Ego Uncovering , by Mare Beesing, Robert Nogosek, and Patrick O’Leary, promulgated in 1984.

The unhurt spell, form notes were acquiring photocopied and passed roughly among Jesuits, so among others in the Catholic Church. Presently thither were Enneagram programs in Catholic hideaway centers concluded Northerly America, accentuation spectral management and counsel inside Catholic spiritism custom. Thither get besides been Catholic critics and defenders of the Enneagram. See likewise this demurrer . The Jesuit priests who taught the Enneagram included Paul Robb, the father of the Bring for Religious Leading, and Tad Dunne, who had been one of Ochs’s students and who taught the Enneagram to Don Richard Riso.

Don Richard Riso

Don Richard Riso (1946-2012) was a Jesuit seminarist perusing divinity at the University of Toronto at the clock in 1973 that he well-read around the Enneagram from 9 pages of descriptions of the 9 personality types. From early Jesuits in the chase months he gathered more fabric approximately the enneagram into a loosen folio ligature. By 1975 Riso was focalisation on enneagram oeuvre.

One of his contributions to slipway of thought most the Enneagram of Personality was Levels of Growth. That is the construct that a mortal of a precondition personality eccentric is at any clip someplace on a continuum from psychologically real respectable, balanced, self-actualized, and suppurate to the extremum reverse, with almost masses well-nigh of the nonce someplace in the medium midriff.

In his low ledger on the enneagram, Personality Types: Victimization the Enneagram for Self-Discovery , offset promulgated in 1987 by Houghton Mifflin, and in his subsequent workings, Riso described the levels of maturation lengthily for apiece personality typewrite.

Riso besides made a figure of early contributions to the exploitation of the Enneagram of Personality, such as describing the tidy aspects of apiece eccentric, elucidative and expanding developments by Ichazo and Naranjo, introducing new enneagram studies nomenclature, etc.. Done the days Riso oft collaborated with his fellow Russ Hudson.

Don Richard Riso with Russ Hudson. Personality Types: Victimisation the Enneagram for Self-Discovery. Revised and updated.

Personality Types: Victimization the Enneagram for Self-Discovery I birth been version this leger for eld, both the 1987 version by Riso unique and the 1996 revised variation. The descriptions of the nine-spot personality types of the enneagram of personality are selfsame exhaustive and admit levels of excited adulthood from respectable to mean to unhealthful, the “wings”, the directions of decomposition and desegregation, and more. Version Riso’s Personality Types (on with books by Helen Palmer) has helped me to amend interpret myself and my wife. I am likewise intrigued by the possibilities of victimisation these authors’ descriptions of the enneagram of personality types, in their levels, wings, and otc variations, to make fictitious characters.

Buy Now

Helen Palmer

My simulate of Helen Palmer’s 1st enneagram leger | Beginning

In the other Seventies, Claudio Naranjo taught the enneagram to Helen Palmer , among others. Harpist Row promulgated Palmer’s leger The Enneagram: Sympathy Yourself and the Others in Your Aliveness in 1988. Oscar Ichazo’s Arica Plant sued Palmer for copyright violation. The Arica Bring largely disoriented the cause. The cause is authenticated in Arica Found, Inc., Plaintiff-Appellant, v. Helen Palmer and Harpist & Row Publishers, Corporate, Defendants-Appellees. No. 771, Agenda 91-7859. Joined States Homage of Appeals, S Circle. Argued Jan. 30, 1992. Distinct July 22, 1992 . { That instrument is uncommitted on-line hither .}

The jurist of the Secondment Circle US Judicature of Appeals pointed out that but archetype reflection can be copyrighted and that breakthrough of facts cannot be copyrighted. He encourage pointed out that the Arica Schoolhouse’s own publications quotation Ichazo as locution he did not forge or produce the enneagram or the ‘fixations’, etcetera., but kinda that those were facts of nature that he observed. As regards the law causa (and without implying any ruling as to whether the claimed facts are in fact facts), the Homage of Appeals justice (similar the pilot evaluate) aforesaid that he would contract Ichazo at his watchword and pointed out that Ichazo could not with eubstance both take he was precept ascertained confirmable facts of nature and call his teachings were copyrightable.

The jurist affirmed that, piece neither an estimation nor a fact is copyrightable, an archetype manifestation of an mind or of a fact is copyrightable, and he pointed out that how a successiveness of facts is presented mightiness or mightiness not be copyrightable. Putt historic facts in chronological decree [alike, e.g., to commit my own examples, a publicize tilt of the emperors of antediluvian Rome or of the major battles of Mankind War I] would not be copyrightable, since thither is nil originative in such a lean. Granted that Arica publications delineated the successiveness of fixations as a innate fact, care the rainbow coloration episode, and not a immanent quality, it followed that no creativeness was convoluted in presenting that ascertained successiveness. Notwithstanding, the evaluator over that Ichazo’s putt the succession of the fixations of the niner personality types as labels on the enneagram was archetype — Gurdjieff’s depictions of the enneagram had no row on them — and was leastwise minimally originative, and thither were early shipway in which others could confront the succession, so that that paticular way of labeling the enneagram was copyrightable. Withal, he agreed with the pilot evaluator that Palmer’s uses of copyrightable Arica stuff was allowable as “bazaar use.”

Patch Ichazo and his Arica Civilize generally missed the copyright violation suit, the vitrine likewise had convinced results for him. It befool platter his character as in around respects the spotter and in around respects the conceiver of the Enneagram of the Fixations, the forerunner of the Enneagram of Personality. The vitrine stopped-up his originative contributions from organism neglected and disregarded. From what I suffer study, nigh crucial, major deeds on the Enneagram since so birth granted due cite and honour to Gurdjieff, Ichazo, and Naranjo.

Another core of the showcase was to let beat the humankind cognise that anyone had the compensate to pay the Enneagram of Personality their own descriptions, interpretations, and developments, or to put the enneagram symbolization itself to any over-the-counter function.

Regarding the differences ‘tween Ichazo and Palmer, see besides Ichazo’s “Missive to the Transpersonal Community”, cited supra in the Ichazo capsulise.

See more at Enneagram Ecumenical . That is the site of a nonprofit founded by Helen Palmer and David Daniels and consecrated to “enneagram studies in the story custom.” That refers to a method of pedagogy the enneagram by having students discover a facilitator question a jury of volunteers whose personality types suffer been time-tested. As the volunteers discourse their shipway of responding to spirit experiences, students can see what mass of the like enneagram personality case deliver in usual. Roughly sentience of this can be cleaned by trenchant YouTube on:

conscioustv mcnay enneagram eccentric

and observation that serial of videos.

A. H. Almaas and bey

Naranjo and Almaas

Claudio Naranjo likewise taught A. Hameed Ali, who has the indite A. H. Almaas . He was natural in Kuwait in 1944 into a Muslim kinsfolk. He touched to the USA at age 18 to bailiwick physics at University of California. By the clock he was perusing for his PhD, he had interpreted an concern in self-development done ghostlike and psychological techniques. In Claudio Naranjo’s classes circa 1972, he erudite speculation, bodywork, Gestalt Therapy, and the Enneagram. He went on to see from a Zen Buddhist professional, from a Freudian healer who was a practician of Gurdjieff’s Fourthly Way techniques, and from a Reichian psychologist. He studied analysis, the Judeo-Christian mystics, and Sufism.

Ali (or Almaas) synthesized these influences into a mix of techniques—including instruction the use of the Enneagram of Personality for self-understanding and self-development—that he called the Adamant Attack . To instruct that coming, in 1976 Hameed Ali founded the Ridhwan Civilize in Bowlder, Colorado. Nowadays Ridhwan Cultivate has concluded a xii locations in the Joined States and leastwise one locating apiece in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, and Sweden.

Then …

The Eighties were eld of Enneagram of Personality search. By the Nineties the Enneagram of Personality was comely an accomplished bailiwick, with its own master organizations, trainings, and exchangeable tests.

In the twelvemonth 1994:

* Helen Palmer and David Daniels started The Connection of Enneagram Teachers in the Tale Custom, which has since been renamed The Enneagram Connection in the Tale Custom ;

* Helen Palmer and David Daniels convened the offset Outside Enneagram League, hosted at Stanford University;

* Mare Beesing, David Daniels, Theodorre Donson, Andreas Ebert, Russ Hudson, Kathy Hurley, Patrick O’Leary, Helen Palmer, and Don Riso founded the Outside Enneagram Affiliation (IEA).

In 1995 Don Riso and Russ Hudson founded The Enneagram Establish. Believably earlier so, the two constructed the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Character Indicant (RHETI) personality character essay, which they graceful concluded the ensuing eld.

By the 2000s, the enneagram was existence victimised for hiring and promotions in businesses and nonprofits. I kickoff heard of the enneagram in 2001 when, as office of the operation of a major calling promotion, my wife was presumption both a Myers-Briggs and an Enneagram of Personality tryout.

Betimes Books on the Enneagram

1969. That Sure Thirst. Jan Cox. Enneagram Pressure. Atlanta.

1974. The Enneagram. Lav G. Bennett. Coombe Springs Imperativeness. Sherborne.

1979. The Ontogenesis of an Armoury to Tax Enneagram Personality Typecast. Stephen Randall. University Microfilms Outside (Dissertation/thesis Microfiche). Ann Spindle, MI.

1980. The Enneagram Organisation of Personality Typology. Jerome P. Wagner. Publisher?

1980. A Descriptive, Reliableness, and Cogency Work of the Enneagram Personality Typology. Jerome P. Wagner. dissertation/thesis: Ms Archival Corporeal; (besides on microfiche). Loyola University. Chicago.

1982. Victimization The Enneagram: Paths to Self-Knowledge. Diane Myers. Attribute Books. Denville, NJ.

1983. Enneagram Studies. Privy GH. Bennett. S. Weiser. York Beach, ME.

1984. The Enneagram: A Journeying of Ego Find. Mare Beesing; Robert J. Nogosek; Patrick H. O’Leary. Attribute Books. Denville, NJ.

1984. The Christian Enigma. [WorldCat gives the subjects of this volume as Occultism and Enneagram.] Rodney Collin. Trusted Ardour Imperativeness. Edmonds, WA.

1986. The Enneagram As A Peter for Ego Emergence Focalization on the Eight-spot Period, Ego Payback. Judith Schwartz. Dissertation/thesis: Holograph Archival Cloth. Antioch University.

1986. Interrater Reliableness and Rigour of Judgments of Enneagram Personality Types.William S. Gamard. Dissertation/thesis; California Establish of Inherent Studies, San Francisco; University Microfilms. Ann Pergola, MI.

1987. Personality Types: Exploitation The Enneagram for Self-Discovery. Don Richard Riso. Houghton Mifflin. Boston.

1987. Remedial The Pump of Miserable: Victimization The Enneagram for Spectral Growing. Eli Jaxon-Bear. Leela Initiation. Stinson Beach, CA.

1987. 9 Portraits of Jesus: Discovering Jesus done Enneagram. Robert J. Jogosek. Attribute Books. Denville, NJ.

1987. The Enneagram and Entreaty: Discovering Our Rightful Selves Ahead God. Barbara Metz; Lav Burchill. Dimensions Books. Denville, NJ.

1988. The Enneagram Way: Knowledgeable Yourself and Others. Mary Rebecca E. Rogacion, Babe. St. Paul Publications. Makati, Philippines.

1988. Out of the Shadows: Uses of Imprint, Anxiousness, and Angriness in the Enneagram. Margaret Frings Keyes. Molysdatur Publications. Muir Beach, CA.

1988. The Volume of Enneagram Prayers. Kathleen M. H. Rainbow Leger Agencies. Northcote, Victoria, Australia.

1988. The Enneagram: Apprehension Yourself and Others in Your Liveliness. Helen Palmer. Harpist & Row. San Francisco.

1988. Learned Yourself and Others: The Enneagram Way. Sr Rivkha; Mary Rebecca E. Sr Rogacion. St. Paul Publications. Makati, Philippines.

1989. A Finisher View the Enneagram. Dorothy Garrity Ranaghan. Greenlawn Wardrobe. S Crease, IN.

Questions & Answers

Questions mustiness be on-topic, scripted with right grammar utilisation, and apprehensible to a all-encompassing interview.

© 2012 Brian Leekley

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